The hip joints are the most important part in retaining balance. Distally on the femur some hip joint capsule pain palpable bony structures are the condyles.
The joint space between the femoral head and the superior acetabulum is normally between 2 and 7 mm. Transverse and sagittal angles of acetabular inlet plane. The acetabulum is oriented inferiorly, laterally and anteriorly, while the femoral neck is directed superiorly, medially, and slightly anteriorly. 25 degrees towards becoming frontal.
Changes in trabecular patterns due to altered CCD angle. Coxa valga leads to more compression trabeculae, coxa vara to more tension trabeculae. Changes in CCD angle is the result of changes in the stress patterns applied to the hip joint. In the femur, the first system lines up with a system arising from the lateral part of the femoral shaft to stretch to the inferior portion of the femoral neck and head.
The other system lines up with a system in the femur stretching from the medial part of the femoral shaft to the superior part of the femoral head. The capsule attaches to the hip bone outside the acetabular lip which thus projects into the capsular space. On the femoral side, the distance between the head’s cartilaginous rim and the capsular attachment at the base of the neck is constant, which leaves a wider extracapsular part of the neck at the back than at the front. The capsule has two sets of fibers: longitudinal and circular.
The longitudinal retinacular fibers travel along the neck and carry blood vessels. The hip joint is reinforced by four ligaments, of which three are extracapsular and one intracapsular. All three strengthen the capsule and prevent an excessive range of movement in the joint. Of these, the Y-shaped and twisted iliofemoral ligament is the strongest ligament in the human body.
In the upright position, it prevents the trunk from falling backward without the need for muscular activity. In the sitting position, it becomes relaxed, thus permitting the pelvis to tilt backward into its sitting position. The iliofemoral ligament prevents excessive adduction and internal rotation of the hip. The zona orbicularis acts like a buttonhole on the femoral head and assists in maintaining the contact in the joint. It is only stretched when the hip is dislocated, and may then prevent further displacement. This artery is not present in everyone but can become the only blood supply to the bone in the head of the femur when the neck of the femur is fractured or disrupted by injury in childhood. Did you know that the hip ligaments are not supposed to be streched in a split position, much worse an oversplit.