Since the side effects are also lesser, topical preparations could be preferred over oral analgesics joint pain in these conditions. Each different type of analgesic has its own associated side effects. Analgesics are typically classified based on their mechanism of action.
It is typically used for mild to moderate pain. Effects last between two and four hours. Paracetamol is classified as a mild analgesic. Paracetamol is generally safe at recommended doses. These drugs have been derived from NSAIDs. NSAIDs was discovered to have at least 2 different versions: COX1 and COX2.
NSAIDs, but cause less gastrointestinal hemorrhage in particular. This led to the withdrawal of rofecoxib and valdecoxib, and warnings on others. Etoricoxib seems relatively safe, with the risk of thrombotic events similar to that of non-coxib NSAID diclofenac. Opioids, while very effective analgesics, may have some unpleasant side-effects.
The effect of tolerance means that frequent use of the drug may result in its diminished effect so, when safe to do so, the dosage may need to be increased to maintain effectiveness. This may be of particular concern regarding patients suffering with chronic pain. Describing the effects of using alcohol to treat pain is difficult. Alcohol has biological, mental, and social effects which influence the consequences of using alcohol for pain. Moderate use of alcohol can lessen certain types of pain in certain circumstances. The available research concludes that more research would be necessary to better understand the use of alternative medicine. Drugs that have been introduced for uses other than analgesics are also used in pain management.
NSAIDs and opioids for pain involving nerve damage and similar problems. As such, in general, the idea of alcohol for analgesia is considered a primitive practice in virtually all industrialized countries today. Many of these drugs combat the side-effects of opioid analgesics, an added bonus. In patients with chronic or neuropathic pain, various other substances may have analgesic properties. Nefopam is used in Europe for pain relief with concurrent opioids. Anticonvulsants are most commonly used for neuropathic pain as their mechanism of action tends to inhibit pain sensation.
It is not addictive, and tolerance usually does not develop. However, tolerance may develop in single cases. Topical analgesia is generally recommended to avoid systemic side-effects. The labeling for topical diclofenac has been updated to warn about drug-induced hepatotoxicity.
In February 2007 the FDA notified consumers and healthcare professionals of the potential hazards of topical anesthetics entering the blood stream when applied in large doses to the skin without medical supervision. These topical anesthetics contain anesthetic drugs such as lidocaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, and prilocaine in a cream, ointment, or gel. Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and lower back pain. Photosensitivity and other AEs typical of NSAIDs. Comes in free acid and lysine salt forms. Practically insoluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol and methanol, soluble in acetone and chloroform. As per aspirin and paracetamol.
Topical, PO, rectal, spray and vaginal. Skin conditions, such as contact dermatitis. Is metabolised to aspirin and urea. Unstable in the presence of light and air. More prone to causing these AEs compared to the other non-selective NSAIDs. Musculoskeletal, joint and soft-tissue disorders. Musculoskeletal pain and soft tissue injuries.
Comes in free acid and hydrochloride salt forms. Comes in free acid and piperazine salt forms. Soft tissue inflammation and pain. Musculoskeletal, joint, peri-articular and soft-tissue disorders. Degrades in the presence of air. As per diclofenac, except with lower risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and hypertension.